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101 Jan De Lameter left a will dated October 25, 1702, proved before Lord Cornbury September 9, 1703. "In the name of God, Amen. Upon the day and year underwritten appeared before me, Adrian Vermeuile, Clerk of the Town of New Harlem, admitted by he Honourable the Mayors Court of New York, and in the presence of the underwritten witnesses. John De Lameter, being sick in bed." He appointed his wife Ruth Waldron, "master and ruler" of all his goods during her life, but she shall not mortgage or bring any encumbrance upon it. The eldest son is to have one cow, one horse and 5 pounds, and then to have his share equally with the other children. Not named. Witnesses, Isaac De Lameter, Johanes Waldron, Peter Oblinus.  John De Lameter
 
102 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living
 
103 Gillis or Yellis Jans (De) Mandeville was baptized June 1626 at the Dutch Reformed Church, Doesburg, Gelderland, Netherlands. His surname may appear in some records as Aegidus. The English translation being Gillis or Yellis Jans (De) Mandeville.

Gillis Jansen de Mandeville, from Garderen in the Veluawe, Gelderland, arrived on the ship "Faith" which sailed February 13, 1659. He came with his wife, Elsie Hendricks and four children. Two children were born afterwards in America. Gillis died between 1696 and 1701.

Gellis owned a farm in Flatbush and gave it to his eldest son, Hendrick. Received a grant of 30 acres at Greenwich laid out to him December 5, 1670. Patented December 30, 1680.

"History of Harlem" , James Riker 
Gillis Jansen De Mandeville
 
104 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living
 
105 Abel DeVow (De Voe), yeoman, left a will dated April 22, 1774, proved July 29, 1774, New Rochelle, Westchester County, New York in which he devised to his son Abel, "a negro wench and her increase." To his son Frederick he gave a negro man. To his son Andrew, a negro boy. He devised to his daughter Magdalena, wife of Jeremiah Schurman 150 pounds. To his wife Magdalena, Abel devised all the rest of his movable estate. Sons, Abel and Frederick were appointed executors. Witnesses were Gilbert Bloomer, Hezekiah Seaman and Israel Secord. "Abstracts of Wills", Vol. VIII, published by the New York Historical Society.

This could be the will of Abel's father Abel De Voe, who was born about 1688, but would have been age 86 in 1774. The son Abel De Voe, born about 1713, would have been age 61 at the time the above will was written. 
Abel De Voe, Jr.
 
106 Will of Abel Devoe (Devoue) of New Rochelle, Westchester County, New York, dated May 3, 1775, proved August 12, 1775. "To be buried in the burying ground that I have reserved for a burying place for my family, and for any of the Devous of my relations, and the free liberty of a road from the highway to said burying place being 30 feet north and south, and 28 feet east and west." To my wife Mary, the use of all my estate. After her decease, I leave to my son Benjamin, 60 acres of the land in the front joining to he road and extending from said road eastward. I leave to my wife a horse and chair. The rest of my land joining to my bfrother Frederick Devoue is to be sold by my executors with the movables, at public vendue. My wife may sell my negro man "Prime" ,when she pleases. I leave to my son Daniel, 5 pounds and my big gun. To my grandchild, Tamor Barker, 20 pounds. I leave all the rest "with what my wife expects from her father," to all my children, Daniel, Abel and my daughters, Mary Lndrine, Esther Devoue and Susannah Devoue. I leave to my son Abel 40 shillings "soon after my decease." I make my wife Mary and my sons, Daniel and Abel executors. Witnesses Hilead unt, Abigail Ward, Beter Bonnet. "Abstracts of Wills," Vol. VIII, p 299-300, published by The New York Historical Society. Abel De Voe
 
107 No. 20. Sold to Isaac Concklin and Jacob Concklin of Westchester Co., farmers; farm in the Manor of Philipsburgh; bounded W. by Upper Mill River; N. by a run of water which divides it from the farm now or late in possession of Abraham Devoe and the farm now or late in the possession of Ezekiel Leggett; E. by the land now or late in possession of William Furshee and by land now or late in possession of Daniel Requa; S. by land now or late in possession of Mathew Farrington and by land now or late in possession of Sanuel Dean; 305 acres; formerly possessed by David Conklin; frofeited by the attainder of Frederick Philipse. 1786. "Abstracts of Sales by the Commissioners of Forfeitures in the Southern District of New York;, NYGB REC., Vol. 59, p 346. Abraham De Voe
 
108 Also recorded as Alliday, Ella

Note: One John De Voe Valentine died March 9, 1852. Relationship unknown.

"Marriages and Deaths in the New York Herald, 1835-1855," James P. Maber. 
Auley De Voe
 
109 Will of Daniel De Voe, yeoman, dated October 27, 1773, proved November 8, 1774, Borough Town of Westchester, Westchester County, New York. Daniel named his eldest son Daniel, who already had a considerable share of his father's estate, was devised 5 pounds and his father's large chair. The mortgage, on the lands of his son Levi, was canceled and Levi was given 20 shillings. "To my son John, all my real estate, two houses, a cow, 2/3 of all grain, and the whole of grain sowed on a little lot by Charles Doughtys, and 1/2 of all leather in my vats. To my daughter, Mary " De Voo", wife of my son Johannes, and to her daughter, Elizabeth, a cow and my small psalm book and two Negroes. To my son John, my share in the Periauger." (Corruption of the word Pirogue, the Indian word adopted by the French and Spanish, as well as the English, which is a large canoe carrying a mast and sail.) "Daughter Mapes to have a room in my house while unmarried. To my granddaughter, Margaret Mapes, a bed and teakettle. To Rev. Mr. Shoemaker, my large Psalm Book. All apparel to four sons, Daniel, Cornelius, Levi and John. All the rest to son Cornelius, and my daughters, MAGDALENA ODELL, Mary Vanderburgh and Abigail Odell, and to my granddaughters, Margaret Rudder and Margaret Mapes" Sons Levi and John, and son-in-law, Richard Odell were appointed executors. Witnessed by Henry Oblenus, Edward Harris and Robert Gilmore, Schoolmaster. "Abstracts of Wills" Vol VII, p 358-9, published by New York Historical Society.

Wife not named. The clue that this may be the correct Daniel De Voe, is that he named his daughter, Magdalena Odell.  
Daniel De Voe
 
110 "De Vaux" has been spelled variously in old records as De Voix, De Voorse, De Voe, De Voese, De Vou and De Vose.

"Frederick De Voe, said to have been born near La Rochelle in 1645, left with his parents and brothers Nicholas and David for Manheim. From there the brothers left for New York and New Harlem."

"Frederick De Vos, his brothers, Nicholas, Daniel and Jacob, fled the province of Annis, France around 1645 during the Huguenot persecution. They were pursued by troops as they fled through the forests during the day and on bypaths at night. They found shelter with an old woman one night, who hid and fed them. From there they went on to Manheim, Germany, where Frederick grew and married his first wife. She died childless."

"In 1675 Frederick De Voe and his family left Manheim, Germany for England then decided to follow his brothers and other relatives who preceded him to New York, and settled in Harlem. Frederick's German passport, dated February 23, 1675, indicated that he was a widower. He married his second wife at Harlem where he lived until about 1683. During the year of 1683 Frederick moved to Fordham Manor, Westchester County, on the Harlem River, a location that became known as Devoe's Point,"

"Frederick purchased 200 acres of land at New Rochelle in 1718. In 1719 he purchased land there from Susanna Coutant, and died in 1845 at the home of his son, Daniel De Voe."

"1698. Frederick was one of the French Huguenots in Westchester County, New York to sign a document against "these heretical acts" when there was an attempted assassination of King William. He signed as "Frederick Devou".

"Genealogy of the De Veaux Family", Thomas F. De Voe.
"Revised History of Harlem (City of New York), Its Origin and Early Annals", James Riker, originally printed 1904.
"Ship Passenger Lists, Huguenot Settlers of New Rochelle", Carl Boyer, 3rd., 1978.

Frederick and Hester's children, Rachel and Jacob De Voe, were baptized as twins at the Reformed Dutch Church, New York, New York. The parents were listed as "Fredrick du Voix" and "Hester Te Neur." Witnesses were Daniel Terneur, Nicholas de Voix, Lydia Van Dyck and Magdalena TerNeur.
Reformed Dutch Church, New York, New York Baptisms, published in the "New York Genealogical and Biographical Record".

1705. Frederick De Voe purchased land in Morrisania, Westchester County, New York.
1715. Frederick De Voe took the Oath of Allegiance.
1718. Frederick purchased 200 acres of land in New Rochelle from his daughter, Lea Gendron, who was left a widow by her husband's death. The following year he purchased an adjoining 100 acres of land and signed his name, "Frederick De Vose".

1721, June 13. Frederick deeded his farm to his eldest son, Frederick, which he received from his wife as a marriage portion, after his first wife died in 1721. For several years Fredrick lived off and on with his children, including his daughter Susannah Nodine at Yonkers, and died in the home of his son, Frederick De Voe, Jr.

Frederick De Voe left a will dated January 23, 1741, proved December 8, 1743, as follows: "I, Frederick De Voorse, Sr., of Westchester. My executors are to pay all debts, and I leave to each of them 5 pounds. I leave to my eldest son Frederick, 10 pounds. To my son Joseph, 15 pounds, to be paid by my son Abel. I leave to my grandson John De Voorse, 20 pounds to be paid by my son Abel. I leave to my son Abel, all that my 100 acres of land at New Rochelle, and he is to pay to my executors 135 pounds. I leave to my daughter Judith, my French Psalm Book. All the rest of my personal estate I leave to my daughters, Rachel, wife of Johannes Dyckman, Susanah, wife of Andrew Nodine, Esther, wife of Laury Vincent, Leah, widow of Nathaniel Bayley, Dinah, late wife of Tobias Conckling (and to the children she had by her former husband, viz., Leah, wife of John O'Brien, and Esther, wife of Charles Vincent, Elizabeth, Margaret, and Sarah), Judith, wife of Johannes Barhite, And to the children of my daughter Mary, wife of Joshua Bishop (by her former husband Evert Brown, viz., Evert, David, Benjamin, Asia, and Elizabeth.) I make my sons Frederick and Daniel, and my friend Abraham Morthing, executors." Witnesses were Gerradus Wilse, James Collard, and Roger Barton. "Abstracts of Wills", Vol. III, p 418, published by The New York Historical Society.

Frederick was buried on the farm of his son, Abel De Voe.



 
Frederick De Voe
 
111 After the settlement of his father's estate, Frederick leased a farm at Lower Yonkers on Philips Manor.

Frederick De Voe and his wife are buried in the then existing private burial ground on the farm of a neighbor, Gilbert Valentine, located in the upper west corner just outside the present Woodlawn Cemetery. "Genealogy of the De Veaux Family", Thomas F. De Voe, 1885.  
Frederick De Voe
 
112 Will of Frederick DeVoe (Voor), dated August 8, 1751, Morrisania, Westchester County, New York, proved April 30, 1753. Frederick ordered that all debts and funeral charges were to be well and truly satisfied. To his wife, Mary, Frederick left the use of all of the estate, real and personal during her widowhood, "but if she marries she shall have only ce30." Bequests were made to his eldest son, Frederick, daughter, Abigail Brown, and to daughters, Hester, Sarah, Mary and Leah. The balance of the estate, real and personal, was devised to his sons, Frederick, Daniel, John, Thomas and Abraham. After his wife's decease, all of his estate was ordered to be put up and sold to the highest bidder, giving his executors full power to sell. Frederick's wife Mary, brother Daniel Devour, and his brother-in-law, Andrew Nodine were appointed executors. Witnesses were Joshua Bishop, James Collard and William Moore. "Abstracts of Wills", Vol. IV, p 273.  Frederick J. De Voe
 
113 Baptized May 8, 1680. Sponsors Daniel Tourneur and Beltje Herox. Hester (Esther) De Voe
 
114 John's wife, Rebecca De Voe was a daughter of Daniel De Voe, his father's half brother.  John De Voe
 
115 Also said to have married Peter Gendron. Leah De Voe
 
116 It has also been recorded that Moses De Voe married November 17, 1836 Sarah M. Valentine. Moses De Voe
 
117 Baptized May 1, 1678 along with her twin brother, Jacob, at the Reformed Dutch Church, New York. Witnsses were Daniel Terneur, Nicholas du Voix, Lydia Van Dyck and Magdalena Terneur. Rachel De Voe
 
118 Baptized July 1, 1682. Witnesses were Jany Dyckman and his wife Maria. Reformed Dutch Church,New York.

Will of Susanna (nee De Voe) Nodine dated January 17, 1762, proved November 30, 1762. "I, Susannah Nodine, of Yonkers, in Westchester County. . . I leave to my daughter, Juda Jacobs, 1/2 of my movables, both outdoors and indoors, and to my daughter, Elizabeth Pinckney, the other 1/2. I leave to my grandson, Lewis Jacobs, my gun, and to my son Peter, my Oyster rake. I leave to my granddaughter, Elizabeth, daughter of my son, Peter Nodine, a two-year-old heifer. I make my daughter, Juda Jacobs, executrix Witnesses, Evert Bussing and William Betts. "Abstracts of Wills," Vol I, published by The New York Historical Society.  
Susannah De Voe
 
119 Will of Nicholas Dean, dated February 8, 1772, proved March 24, 1772, Yonkers, Westchester County, New York. "In the name of God Amen. I Nicholas Dean, of Yonkers in Westchester County, being weak in body, I leave to my wife, Deborah 3 cows, 6 sheep, a Negro man and woman, 2 horses, a plow and plow tacking, and all household goods. After her death, my executors are to sell the Negro man and divide the money between my two sons, Solomon and Daniel. They are also to sell the Negro woman, horses and goods, and divide the money among my daughters, Phebe, widow of Joseph Pell, Sarah wife of Samuel Barnes, Charity, wife of John Vallentine, Mary, wife of William Underhill, Amy, wife of Elias Doty, Rachel, wife of Jonothan Pheris (Ferris?) and Margaret, wife of Joshua Gedney. I leave my son Stephen 5 shillings. To the three sons of my daughter, Anne, deceased, viz., Stephen, Saul and Nechlass Thorn, each 5 shillings. Rest of movable estate to be sold and the proceeds paid to my wife. I leave to my son William the farm I bought of Samuel Moss and where he now lives, "that is to say all my right to said farm." I make my wife and son, William, Executors. Witnessed by Jacob Lent, Dennis Lynt and David Oakley. "Abstracts of Wills," Vol. III, published by the New York Historical Society. Nicholas Dean
 
120 Samuel Deal left a will dated May 3, 1773, proved May 28, 1775, Liber 29, p 437,Yonkers, Westchester County, New York as follows:

In the name of God, Amen. I, Samuel Dean, of Yonkers, in Westchester County, yeoman, being in good health. I leave to my wife Dabro (Deborah) all my household goods in lieu of dower, and a cow. My executors are to sell my right in the farm I now live on which was given to me by the will of my honored father, Necklass (Nicholas) Dean, and all the rest of my estate that is not given away before the death of my honored mother. From the money my executors are to pay all debts and charges. I leave to my brother, Daniel Dean 100 pounds, and the rest to my brothers and sisters, viz, Stephen, william, Phebe, widow of Joseph Pell, Sarah, wife of Samuel Barnes, Charity, wife of John Valentine, Amy, wife of Elias Doley (Doty), Rachel, wife of Jonothan Ferris, and Peggy, wife of Josua Gedne. The shares of Charity Valentine and Rachel Ferris are to remain in the hands of my brother, Stephen dean, "to be delivered to them as they shall stand in need." I make my brothers, Stephen and William Dean, executors. Witnessed by David Oakley, Sarah Oakley, David Oakley, Jr.

"New York Historical Society Collections, 1899, Abstracts of Wills," Vol. VIII, 1771-1776, pp 273,274.

Also cited in "Westchester County Wills,1664, 1784", William Pellatreau, A.M., Francis P. Harper, 1898, New York, p 312,as follows:

Will of Samuel Dean, Yonkers; wife Deborah. To sell right in farm where I live left me by my father, Nicholas Dean. Names brothers, Daniel, Stephen and william. Sisters, Phebe, widow of Joseph Pell, Sarah, wife of Samuel Barnes, Charity, wife of John Valentine, Amy, wife of Elias Doty, Rachel, wife of Joseph Ferris, Peggy, wife of Joshua Gedney. Dated May 3, 1772, proved May 28, 1775.


.  
Samuel Dean
 
121 1820. Westchester County, New York. Christian Dederer's household consisted of two males under 10, one male 26/44; two females under 10, one female 16/25 and one female 26/44.

1821. Christian Dederer was an overseer of highways; 1822; assessor; 1831/32, Justice of the Peace; 1834 overseer of highways for District #1; 1836, a juror; 1843 commissioner of highways; 1846/47, inspector for elections. (Madden)

1850. Yonkers, Westchester County, New York Federal Census. One Christian Dederer, age 63 (born 1787), New York, and his wife, Jane, age 60, were living at Yonkers, Westchester County, New York. Property was valued at $10,000.00. 
Elizabeth Dederer
 
122 Baptized Walloon Church, Leiden May 6, 1646 Abraham ( Le Maistre) Delamater
 
123 Baptized March 9, 1653, as Johannes, New Amsterdam Reformed Dutch Church.

"In the name of God, Amen, upon the day and year underwritten, appeared before me, "Adrian" Vermenile clerk of the Town of New Harlem, admitted by ye Honorable Mayor's Court of New York and in the presence of the underwritten witnesses, John De Lameter, being sick in bed, he makes his wife Ruth Waldron master, and ruler of all his goods during her life, but she shall not nortgage or bring any incomerances upon it. The eldest son is to have a cow, one horse and five pounds, and then to have his share equally with the other children." Dated October 25, 1702, proved September 9, 1703, Witnesses, Isaac De Lameter, Johannes Waldron, Peter Oblinus." Abstracts of Wills", Vol. I, p 377, published by The New York Historical Society.  
Jan (Le Maistre) Delamater
 
124 Baptized February 28, 1040/41, daughter of Claude Mettre and Louyse Couelle. Sponsors, Jacques Caulet, Pierre du Ho, Jacquemeinne Cauelle and Susanne le Houc. Susanna (Le Maistre) Delamater
 
125 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living
 
126 Baptized Reformed Dutch Church, February 19, 1676, New Amsterdam, New York. Witnesses, David de Mareetz and Maria de Mareetz. David DeMarest
 
127 On October 5, 1808, Jacob D. Demarest, cordwainer, and Lenah, his wife, of Hackensack Township, Bergen County, New Jersey conveyed to Weart Banta, farmer, of New Barbados Township, for 658 pounds, 10 shillings, three parcels of land. Parcel one was for 11 1/4 acres beginning at a bridge across the brook, east of the Old Church of Schraalenberg, bounded west by Mill Pond, north by land of Simon Demarest, east by land of John Bogert, and south by the road. The second parcel contained 6 1/2 a quarter acres beginning at the woodland of John R. Bogert, land of Jacob D. Demarest, heirs of Dower P. Westervelt, William Westervelt, bounded north by Jacob D. Demarest. Parcel three contained 14 1/2 acres beginning near the woodland of John R. Bogert. Mentioned Jacob D. Demarest, Wiert Banta, Dower P. Westervelt, Jacobus Demarest, Peter Christie. Signed by Jacob D. Demarest and Lenah Demarest (X-her mark). Witnessed by Thomas Holiday and Cornelius Westervelt. Recorded October 15, 1805, Bergen County Land Deed W:34.  Jacobus DeMarest
 
128 Baptized Reformed Dutch Church, New Amsterdam April 21, 1677. Witnesses, Pieter and Rachel Croison. Peter DeMarest
 
129 Baptized June 21, 1680. Rachel DeMarest
 
130 Baptized April 7, 1679, Bergen County, New Jersey. Susannah DeMarest
 
131 Will of Mary Gardiner of "Maidstone, alias East Hampton, upon Long Island," widow of Lion Gardiner, dated April 19, 1664, "I leave my Island, called Isle of Wight, alias Monehonock, to my son David Gardiner for life." Then to his next male heir. If he die without male issue, then to the male heir of my daughter Mary. If she die without male issue, then to the heir male of my grandchild Elizabeth Howell, 'and to be entailed to the heirs male of my deceased husband Lion Gardiner, never to be sold, but to be a continuous inheritance forever.' Leaves to daughter Mary Conckling, 'my whole accommodation at East Hampton.' Mentions sons-in-law Jeremiah Conkling and Arthur Howell. Makes Mr. Thomas James, 'minister of the Word of God,' Mr. John Mulfird and Mr. Robert Bond, all of East Hampton, the overseers of her will. They are also the witnesses. Codocil dated January 15, 1664 mentions same persons and witnesses. Letters of Administration were granted to son David Gardiner October 5, 1665. "Abstracts of Wills,." Vol. I, p 1-2, published by The New York Historical Soceity.  Marrichgen (Mary) Deureant
 
132 1930. High Bridge, Hunterdon County, New Jersey Federal Census. Maude and her husband Frank DeYoung were living next door to her Thomas Valentine. Frank DeYoung
 
133
Albert A. Di Duca was born 08 8 1909 in Atina, Frosinone, Italy, and died 03 14 2001 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan. He married Louise Clara Burnham 05 27 1933 in St. Joseph's Church, Croswell, Michigan, daughter of Charles Burnham and Clara Ross. She was born 1913.

Albert moved to Port Huron, Michigan in 1915 with his family. He retired from the Grand Trunk Railroad in 1978 after 48 years of service, was active in Port Huron Township government, serving in the elected position of trustee, a member of the planning and recreation commissions, a lifelong member of St. Joseph Catholic Church, where he served as an usher for 40 years, and a member of the St. Joseph Mens Club. In addition he was a member of the Wadham's Lions Club, the Port Huron Township euchre club and also served in the Michigan National Guard. Obituary published in the Port Huron Times Herald, Port Huron, Michigan.  
Albert Di Duca
 
134 According to Angelo Di Duca's descendant, Vincenzo James (Jacobus) Di Duca, the land and home the Di Duca family owned in Atina, Italy had been in the family for over 400 years.

"Italian Titles of Nobility," authored by L. Mendola, copyright 1997, relates that there was a time, until 1812 in some regions, when the purchase of land designated "feudal" ennobled the buyer ipso facto; the purchase of a comital fief (a county) thus became a count. This practice ceased with the abolition of feudalism (Serfdom, a feudal institution, was abolished in Italy during the middle Ages.) A number of families still own portions of their traditional feudal holdings, but feudal rights and prerogatives of any kind were finally abrogated by the time that Italy was united in 1870. Although most Italian titles are attached to nominal "seats" (territorial designations), usually the name of fiefs or dimore, the ranks and titles are incorporeal. That is to say that, like an idea, name or copyright, the titles constitute a form of intangible property, but property nonetheless. In fact, this is true of nobilitary titles in most nations; the Duke of Westminster, for example, would retain his ancestral title even if he had no actual property in the dukedom of Westminster.

As recently as the eleventh century, the sovereign rulers of vast regions --Savoy in the north and Sicily in the south - - were known by the simple title of count. Until around 1300, titles of nobility were hardly necessary as indications of high birth because aristocrats bore surnames, while the common people were known only by given names. At this early date, aristocratic surnames were usually toponymic, based upon the name of the family's fief (di Grosseto, di Noto, etc.). This has led some to believe that there exists in Italian a surname prefix or other onomastic characteristic, akin to the German "von", which indicates nobility. This is not true, nor do double-barrelled surnames indicate aristocratic origins; most often a dual surname simply indicates that numerous families in the same town bore the same surname and eventually required differentiation to distinguish among themselves. A nobleman's name sometimes includes a predicator, though not a title. Thus, Giuseppe Lanza, Prince of Trabia bears the surname "Lanza di Trabia", rather than simply Lanza (a common surname), on legal documents. So great were the differences between the rulers and the ruled in medieval Italy that a common man would not think to impersonate a knight or lord, although this has certainly changed."

DUCA, Duchessa (Duke, Duchess). Derived from the Latin dux, a military leader, this title originally was reserved to the sovereign rulers of important territories, such as the Duchy of Spoleto. Like princedoms, dukedoms are sometimes borne by peers whose early medieval forebears were barons, enfeoffed knights or other feudatories. Like princes, dukes were formerly accorded the address "Your Excellency." The younger son of a duke and the heir before succession to the title, is a nobile dei duchi di (seat), namely a "noble of the dukes of" some place. Dukes and their consorts are most formally addressed verbally by title and territorial designation. The heraldic coronet of a duke is a jewelled circlet of gold surmounted by five visible strawberry leaves. Usually, the crimson tasselled cap is not rendered within the coronet.

Atina's legendary beginnings are rooted in the myths surrounding the god "Saturn" who, legend has it, built the first city here, to help oppose the Greeks who were landed in the peninsula about 2,800 years ago. According to Roman historians, in the fifth century BC the Volsci, a tribe of Umbri-Sabelli people of Slavic origin, invaded the area and occupied the town of Atina. Forming a coalition with the Samnites and the Aesci, and with the aid of the legendary Coriolanus, they fought bravely against the Romans. Eventually, however, Atina fell to the Romans. The area came under a "prefecture" (district controlled by the government of Rome), later became a colony, then finally gained the rank of a municipality. In this way it became the most important town in the valley, and Virgil referred to it as "potens". Today there is much evidence to be seen in this era, such as the pre-Roman town walls, built approximately 1000 BC, which were made from carved polygonal blocks.

VOL.SCI from The Oxford Classical Dictionary, p 1131, copyright 1970. Volsci descended from central Italy in the sixth century B.C. And by 500 had established themselves in the middle Liris Vally and regions southeast of the Alban Hills. Chief towns: Sora, Arpinum, ATINA, Privernum, Ecetra, Antium, Cerceii, Anxur (- Tarracina), Valitrae and possibly Pometia. Casual mention of Volsci in regal times is untrustworthy, but thereafter they became and for 200 years remained a threat which Rome met by signing an alliance with Latina and Henrici c. 493. The Aequi aided the Volsci. Fifth-century Volscian operations are known only from garbled Roman accounts; but Coriolanus' exploits and defensive Latin colonies at Signia (495), Norba (492), and Ardea (442) imply Volscian successes. In 434, however, the Latin allies defeated the Aequi then repulsed the Volsci. Volsci opposed Rome in the Latin War, but were defeated by C. Maenius. By 304 all Volsci were subject to Rome and so rapid and complete was their romanization that their original civilization can scarcely be discovered. Their language resembles Umbrian. Although often represented as a unitary nation they were not cohesive. Some Volscis faced Rome singly, and those in the Liris valley obviously acted independently of those near the Tyrrhenian coast.

After the Romans, there was continual invasion and plundering by the barbarians. On the 9th September 1349, a tremendous earthquake struck central Italy, which devastated much of Atina. The town was rebuilt through the determination of the residents, and the financial help of the Cantle family. There is much to indicate the town's importance in Medieval times, such as the elegant Palazzo Ducal of the Cantle family, built in the 14th century which houses the Town Hall, and also a Museum which preserves many interesting artifacts and antiquities, such as frescoes depicting community life of the Medieval period. There are also the ruins of the fort on the hill of San Stefano, the churches of San Stefano and of San Marco with its Romanesque bell tower and many chapel frescoes of the 14th century, and the church and convent of San Francesesco. There are a number of grand old houses to be found in Atina, dating back over several centuries that were the palaces of wealthy families of the area.

Atina is located some 40 miles southeast of Frosinone and is one of the 91 communities in the province of Frosinone, Region of Lazio. (Also designated as the Region of Campania, Province of Caserta, Commune of Atina, no doubt because Atina appears to be on the border of both Provinces) Today there are less than 10,000 people. Atina is situated at the base of a mountain on the way from Sora towards Cassino. It looks above the "Comino Valley", and is surrounded by more than a dozen other small towns who converge to Atina for its shopping centers. An attached map shows the village of Atina, and an area above Atina that is designated as "Duca". The Abbey of Monte Cassino located at Cassino could be viewed from the Di Duca home. Seventy-two families are still living in Atina, Italy.

In the late 1800's the poorer classes, many of whom were shepherds, farmers, farm laborers and unskilled workers in Atina experienced hardship because the Italian land system did not offer much hope for personal improvement. The Italian governmental policy aspired to industrialize the entire nation at the expense of the people. Landlords charged high rates, paid low wages and failed to provide reliable employment. Between 1870 and 1900 the production of foodstuffs, except for fresh fruit, fish, tomatoes and vegetables slowed, resulting in poverty and malnutrition that spread throughout Italy. particularly for those in southern Italy.

Many villagers, particularly those in southern Italy, and especially those in Atina were leaving to escape poverty and hoping to find better prospects elsewhere. As early as 1872 the great migration began from Italy, reaching its peak between 1880 and 1920. Among those who found that their survival depended upon relocation was Angelo Di Duca's grandson, Benedetto Di Duca, the first known member of that family to leave Italian soil, having made several trips to New York, first arrived in 1908, returned to Italy, sailed again for New York in 1911, returned to Italy, then made his finaly return to New York City in 1912, from which point the family finally settled in Port Huron, Michigan.
 
Angelo Di Duca
 
135 Benedetto3 Di Duca (Marco2, Angelo1) was born 09 15 1875 in Atina, Frosinone, Italy, and died 03 14 1978 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan. He married Carmella Di Duca 1901 in Atina, Italy, daughter of Luigi Di Duca and Bernadetta Masconi. She was born 1876 in Atina, Frosinone, Italy, and died 12 10 1947 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan.

Benedetto was the youngest of Marco Di Duca's children. Shortly after his marriage at age 27, he and his wife went to Dundee, Scotland where they operated a Sweets Shop, or a Fish and Chips business, where Carmella's brother, Joseph and his family were living. Soon after the birth of their son, James (Vincenzo) Di Duca they returned to Atina, Italy.

Benedetto made his first voyage to America in 1908, and worked in New York City alongside the Irishmen digging ditches. He returned several times to Italy. According to an Ellis Island passenger manifest, Benedetto Di Duca, arrived there June 18, 1912. He sailed from Naples, Campania, Italy on the ship "Hamburg". he was age 37, farm laborer, of Italian heritage, in Southern Italy, Caserta, Atina, Italy, wife's name was Carmela, he had a ticket to his final destination, $25.00 in cash, had previously arrived in America in 1908 and 1911, to stay at the residence of Carmine Luigi Pia, 310 W. Street, New York City, in good health, 5'6" tall, born Caserta, Atina, Italy. Benedetto Di Duca obtained his American citizenship papers in 1925.

Benedetto's good friend and neighbor, Carmine (Charles) Randolfi, arrived at Ellis Island in the same year, born at Caserta, Atina, Italy. See notes on Carmine (Charles) Randolfi.

Benedetto Di Duca's obituary was published in the Port Huron Times Herald. He died at age 103. Pallbearers were James Bonadio, (husband of granddaughter, Janet), Thomas Di Duca, Robert Humes, Raymond Humes, Joseph Mancini, Eugene Mancini, Robert Mancini and George Norman, all grandsons. That he came to Port Huron in 1914 and lived on Yeager Street since 1917, that he was a retired farmer and a member of St. Joseph Church, Port Huron, Michigan, and member of the Men's Club. That he was survived by two sons, Albert A., Port Huron, and James V. Di Duca, Los Gatos, California, three daughters, Mrs. John (Rose) Valente, Mrs. Melvin C. (Christina) Hall, both of Port Huron and Mrs. Walter E. (Mary) Ruthenberg, Clearwater, Florida, 15 grandchildren, 52 great-grandchildren and several great great grandchildren; that a daughter, Carmela died in 1924, and that another daughter, Mrs. Earl (Sarah) Norman, died in 1952.

1920 Port Huron, St. Clair County Federal Census, Vol. 85, E. D. 129, Sheet 4, Line 80, household 320 Yeager Street. Ben Di Duca, age 46, born Italy, Carmella Di Duca, age 35, born Italy, JAMES DI DUCA, AGE 17, (born 1903), Scotland, Rosa Di Duca, age 14, born Italy, Albert Di Duca, age 11, born Italy, Sarah Di Duca, age 7, born Italy, Mary Di Duca, age 3, born Michigan, Christinia, age 2 years, 12 months, born Michigan, Carmella Di Duca, age 8 months, born Michigan.

1920 Port Huron, Michigan City Directory. Benj. Diduca (Benedetto Di Duca), (Carmelia), wife, works for the Port Huron Sulphite and Paper Company, manufacturing paper, lives on "Yager" Street. His friend, Charles (Carmine) Randolfi, worked for the same company at the same time. Other members of the Randolfi family and Di Duca lived close to one another.

Yager (Campau), from Water Street, sixth, west of Bridge Street. There were 16 homes listed, not numbered. Ben Di Duca was not living in any one of them. Could be that he was renting. Both he and his son, Vincent, were listed as living on "Yager" Street.

Burial: Mt. Hope Cemetery, Port Huron, Michigan

Children of Benedetto Di Duca and Carmella Di Duca are:
+11i.Rosa4 Di Duca, born 05 4 1905 in Atina, Frosinone, Italy; died 04 15 2001 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan.
+12ii.Vincenzo Jacob (James) Di Duca, born 11 9 1907 in Dundee, Scotland; died 09 26 1995 in Paradise, Butte County, California.
+13iii.Albert A. Di Duca, born 08 8 1909 in Atina, Frosinone, Italy; died 03 14 2001 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan.
+14iv.Sarah (Sally) Di Duca, born 1913 in Atina, Frosinone, Italy; died 1952 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan.
+15v.Mary Di Duca, born 1917 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan.
+16vi.Christina Di Duca, born 1918 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan.
17vii.Carmella Di Duca, born 1924 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan; died in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan. 
Benndeto Di Duca
 
136 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living
 
137 Husband unknown. According to the family she had 24 children.
 
Loretta Di Duca
 
138 GIAMBATTISTA DI DUCA, age 27, Italian, married, residence, Caserta, Atina, Italy, arrived April 29, 1914 at Ellis Island, sailed from Naples, Campania, Italy on the ship Princess Irene.

ACHILLE DI DUCA, age 30, Italian, married, residence, Atina, Italy, arrived May 22, 1913, sailed from Le Havre, Seine-Inferior, France on the ship Niagara.

PASQUALE DI DUCA, age 17, Italian, single, residence Valielunge, arrived May 28, 1901 at Ellis Island, sailed from Naples, Campania, Italy on the ship Citta di Torino, (Uncle Patsey?)

BATISTA G. DI DUCA, age 18, Italian, married, residence, Atina, Italy, arrived March 28, 1905 at Ellis Island, sailed from Naples, Campania, Italy on the ship Sardegna.

GIOVANNI DI DUCA, AGE 25, Italian, married, residence Atina, Italy, arrived April 12, 1912 at Ellis Island, sailed from Naples, Campania, Italy, on the ship Cedric. Giovanni Di Duca apparently returned to Italy because he arrived at Ellis Island again on July 19, 1923, age 38, married, from Atina, Italy, sailed from Naples, Campania, Italy on the ship Conte Rosso.

GAETANO DI DUCA, age 36, Italian, married, residence, Atina, Italy, arrived March 23, 1911 at Ellis Island, sailed from Naples, Campania, Italy on the ship Cretic.

RAFFAELE DI DUCA, age 20, Italian, married, residence, Atina, Italy, arrived May 3, 1903 at Ellis Island, sailed from Naples, Campania, Italy on the ship Canada.

Still living in Atina, Italy, 2002, are Alberto Di Duca, 98 V. Sabino, Atina, Carmine Di Duca, 40 V. Ab. Aligerno, Cassino, Domenico Di Duca, 57 V. Sabino, Atina, Francesco Di Duca, 37 V. Miniera Di Ferro, Atino, Francesco Di Duca, 119 V. Lelame, Atina, Girgio V. Ponte Melfa Di Duca, Atina, Giulio Di Duca, 69 V. Dei Pretori, Atina, Giuseppe Piante E Fiori, Di Duca, 1581, V. Sode, Atina, Marco Di Duca, 3, V. M. Di Ferro, Atina, Marco Di Duca, 110, V. Colle, Atina, Mario Di Duca, 34, V. Liegi, Atina, Mario V. Rio Stanco Di Duca, Atina, Italy, Paolo Di Duca, 598, V. Sabino, Atina




Children of Albert Di Duca and Louise Burnham are:
+28i.Thomas5 Di Duca.
+29ii.Antonia Di Duca.

14. Sarah (Sally)4 Di Duca (Benedetto3, Marco2, Angelo1) was born 1913 in Atina, Frosinone, Italy, and died 1952 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan. She married Earl Norman.

Child of Sarah Di Duca and Earl Norman is:
30i.Goerge5 Norman.

15. Mary4 Di Duca (Benedetto3, Marco2, Angelo1) was born 1917 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan. She married (1) Clyde Humes. She married (2) Walter Ruthenberg. He died in Clearwater, Florida. She married (3) Unknown Kreiger.

Children of Mary Di Duca and Clyde Humes are:
31i.Robert5 Humes.
32ii.Raymond Humes.

16. Christina4 Di Duca (Benedetto3, Marco2, Angelo1) was born 1918 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan. She married (1) Not sure. She married (2) Melvin Hall.

Child of Christina Di Duca and Not sure is:
33i.Janet5.


Generation No. 5

19. Joseph G.5 Mancini (Rosa4 Di Duca, Benedetto3, Marco2, Angelo1) was born in Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan.

Children of Joseph G. Mancini are:
34i.Frederic6 Mancini.
35ii.Steve Mancini.

23. Mark Benedetto5 Di Duca (Vincenzo Jacob (James)4, Benedetto3, Marco2, Angelo1) was born 07 31 1925 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan. He married Lillian MacLean.

Children of Mark Di Duca and Lillian MacLean are:
36i.Mary Beth6 Di Duca.
37ii.Judith Di Duca.
38iii.James Di Duca.
39iv.Joseph Di Duca.

24. Dorothy Sondae5 Di Duca (Vincenzo Jacob (James)4, Benedetto3, Marco2, Angelo1) was born 07 28 1927 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan. She married Richard Eagen, son of William Eagen and Fama Cole. He was born in Smiths Creek, St. Clair County, Michigan.

Children of Dorothy Di Duca and Richard Eagen are:
40i.Sandra6 Eagen.
41ii.William Eagen.
42iii.Christopher Eagen.
43iv.Mary Loretta Eagen.
44v.Sam Eagen.

25. Joseph Charles5 Di Duca (Vincenzo Jacob (James)4, Benedetto3, Marco2, Angelo1) was born 04 26 1929 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan. He married Beatrice Eilleen Valentine 04 14 1956 in St. Clair, St. Clair Co., MI, daughter of Charles Valentine and Dorothy Davis. She was born 04 5 1928 in Grosse Pointe Park, Michigan.

Children of Joseph Di Duca and Beatrice Valentine are:
45i.Benedict Charles6 Di Duca, born 08 1 1957 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan. He married Julie Fugh.
+46ii.Renee Theresa Di Duca, born 09 15 1964 in Dominican Hospital, San Jose, California.

26. Joyce5 Di Duca (Vincenzo Jacob (James)4, Benedetto3, Marco2, Angelo1) was born 09 1 1930 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan. She married (1) Norman Kihnley. She married (2) Harry Williams.

Children of Joyce Di Duca and Norman Kihnley are:
47i.Jennifer6 Kihnley.
48ii.Michael Kihnley.

28. Thomas5 Di Duca (Albert A.4, Benedetto3, Marco2, Angelo1) He married Nancy.

Notes for Thomas Di Duca:
Letter dated October 11, 1999. Brian, age 18, Steve, age 16, Stacy, age 14, 
Marco Di Duca
 
139 Rosa Di Duca was born 05 4 1905 in Atina, Frosinone, Italy, and died 04 15 2001 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan. She married (1) Fredrico Mariana Mancini 04 27 1925 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan. He was born in Atina, Frosinone, Italy, and died 1932 in Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan. She married (2) John Valente 06 1937 in Detroit, Wayne County, Michigan. He was born in Italy, and died 12 1 1979 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan.

Rosa Di Duca came to the United States during World War 1, and lived in Port Huron, Michigan until her marriage to Mr. Mancini. They moved to Detroit and returned to Port Huron in 1946. Member of St. Stephen Church, Port Huron, Michigan. Obituary published Port Huron Times Herald. Pallbearers were
Michael, Richard, Frederic, Steven, Dean and Anthony Mancini.

Wedding photograph of Rosa Di Duca to Fredrico Mariana Mancini. Many relatives and friends named. See photograph and notes regarding persons in attendance. (Attached) 
Rosa Di Duca
 
140 12. Vincenzo Jacob (James)4 Di Duca (Benedetto3, Marco2, Angelo1) was born 11 9 1907 in Dundee, Scotland, and died 09 26 1995 in Paradise, Butte County, California. He married Mary Constanza Randolfi 08 15 1924 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan, daughter of Carmine Randolfi and Domenica Rossi. She was born 12 3 1907 in Atina, Frosinone, Italy, and died 12 28 2001 in Paradise, Butte County, California.

Notes for Vincenzo Jacob (James) Di Duca:
Attended St, Marco's Church at Atina, Italy. Attended a Catholic school called "La Cepella" meaning at a small town, taught by Nuns. Later James referred to the school as St. Mary's Catholic School at Frosinone.

James related a story that his great-great-great grandfather, while crossing the Alps with a horse in tow, was arrested for stealing the horse. He responded that he was only dragging a rope and it was not his fault the horse was at the end of the rope.

Another story, that while they were living in Italy, everyone wore wool clothing. Mondays were the market days in Atina, and everyone went to the market. His family lived between the Malino and Malfi Rivers on property called "El Duca." Their greatest fun was playing with hoop snakes, rolling them down the hills.

James told of being able to see Monte Cassino from their two-story home that had been in the Di Duca family for over 400 years, last owned by his uncle, Achillo Di Duca. The Benedictine Monastery is situated at Monte Cassino on a hill of the same name overlooking the town of Cassino, Italy, northwest of Naples. It was founded in 529 by Saint Benedict of Nursia on the site of an Apollonian temple and the monastery became the home of the Benedictine Order that was for many centuries the leading monastery in western Europe. It was destroyed by Lombards in 590, by Saracens in 884, an earthquake in 1349, and was rebuilt each time. The present buildings are in the style of the 16th and 17th centuries. During the 11th and 12th centuries it was a center of learning, particularly in the field of medicine. In 1886 when monasticism was abolished in Italy, Monte Cassino was made a national monument. After the collapse in 1943 of the Fascist regime during World War II, German troops occupied the town of Cassino, Monte Cassino, which was in use by the Germans as a fortress, and was severely damaged during the course of subsequent Allied siege of the town. It was later reconstructed. The Di Duca home was also damaged during World War II.

During the harvest season, tomatoes would be boiled into a paste, then put on a piece of cloth and placed on the roof to dry. When the tomato paste was thoroughly dried it was rolled up and stoned on stone ledges inside house. All manner of foods were hung inside to dry, including spices and salted meats

Notes on back of an envelope given to me, "Tony Genvise, Leona and Nelda. (Children of Tony?). Mrs. Frank Di Pace, Anthony Genevisi. Jery & Delores adopted a little girl named Fortuna."

1920 Port Huron City Directory. Vincent Diduca (Di Duca), works for Grand Trunk Railroad Shops. Home on Yager Street. (Living at home.

Obituary: James Di Duca of Paradise, a partner of Di Duca Bros., Inc., construction firm died Tuesday, September 26, 1995 at Feather River Hospital. He was age 92. Services are planned for 10 a.m., Friday, September 29 at St. Thomas More Catholic Church in Paradise.

Mr. Di Duca was born November 9, 1902, in Scotland to Benedict and Carmellia (Carmella) Di Duca. At age 13, he came to the United States after living in Italy and England. (Scotland). In 1924 he married Mary Randolph in Michigan. After working 33 years as a bridge and building inspector at Grand Trunk Railroad, Mr. Di Duca retired then continued to work with Di Duca Bros. for 20 years. He moved to Paradise with his family about 10 years ago. Mr. Di Duca was a member of St. Thomas More Catholic Church as well as the Operating Engineers. He was a former member of the Knights of Columbus.

Mr. Di Duca is survived by his wife, Mary of Paradise; two sons, Mark and Joe Di Duca of Paradise; three daughters, Dorothy Eagen of Los Gatos, Joyce Kihnley of Cupertino and Stella Meyer of San Jose; brother Albert Di Duca of Michigan; three sisters, Rose Valenti, Mary Kreiger and Christina Hall, all of Michigan; 15 grandchildren, 25 great-grandchildren and seven great-great-grandchildren. Burial will be at Paradise Cemetery. Pallbearers are Benedict, Jim and Joseph Di Duca; Michael Kihnley and Bill and Chris Eagen.

According to his application for citizenship James Di Duca listed his birth date as November 7, 1902.

Burial: Paradise Cemetery, Paradise, Butte County, California


+23i.Mark Benedetto5 Di Duca, born 07 31 1925 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan.
+24ii.Dorothy Sondae Di Duca, born 07 28 1927 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan.
+25iii.Joseph Charles Di Duca, born 04 26 1929 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan.
+26iv.Joyce Di Duca, born 09 1 1930 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan.
27v.Estella Di Duca, born 10 31 1933 in Port Huron, St. Clair County, Michigan. She married Jerome Meyer; born in New York. 
Vincenao (James\Jacob) Di Duca
 
141 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living
 
142 Descendants all in New Jersey. Henry Disbrow
 
143 willed 1/2 of his father's land at Chapaqua in 1747. No children. Henry Disbrow
 
144 Willed 1/2 of his father's land at Chapaqua. 1747. Joseph Disbrow
 
145 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living
 
146 Josiah Disbrow and his family went to New Brunswick as Loyalists during the American Revolution. Josiah Disbrow
 
147 Samuel Disbrow of Philips Manor, Westchester County, New York, died intestate. Letters of Administration were granted to his widow, Mary, now the wife of Reuben Volentine of Philips Manor, on August 13, 1784
 
Samuel Disbrow
 
148 At least one living or private individual is linked to this note - Details withheld. Living
 
149 Neither wife nor children wwere mentioned in will. William Disbrow
 
150 1870. Hohokus Township, Bergen County, New Jersey Federal Census. Andrew Doremus, age 45, farm laborer, Jane Doremus, age 33, wife, Samuel Doremus, age 13, John Doremus, age 11, George Doremus, age 6. All born New Jersey. Andrew Doremus
 

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